A minimum flow of 20cuft/s (0.57m3/s) is adopted, combining the original 10cuft/s (0.28m3/s) of Sulphur Springs water with 10cuft/s (0.28m3/s) added to the river from water stored in Tampa Bypass Canal. Lower Hillsborough River Watershed. What type of fish is in the Hillsborough River? (1828) The Fort King Military Road (now State Road 41) is built to connect Fort King in Ocala with Fort Brooke in what was then the settlement of Tampa. Water Quality Index (WQI) is an average of 5 different parameters giving a river a GOOD (0-45), FAIR (45-60), or POOR (60+) rating. He has since expanded the blog to include gear reviews, fishing reports, and even recipes for cooking up your catch. While the construction of bridges made air travel across Tampa Bay unnecessary, several airports have been built along the shoreline. [42][43] In 1917, the Corps of Engineers dredged another channel from the mouth of Tampa Bay to the Port of Tampa, instantly making the city an important shipping center. Spanish mackerel are all over the channel and up in the bay. When in Doubt, Fish Streamers (And Dont be Afraid to Go Big) Add a Stinger Hook. Local rental (one park) for up to four hours: $25. TECO does not rebuild the dam and turns to other locations for electrical generating plants. ", "University of Georgia Libraries, Hargrett Rare Books and Manuscript Library: 1584 map of La Florida", "University of Georgia Libraries, Hargrett Rare Books and Manuscript Library: 1695 Spanish Map", "Historical Map Archive: The Peninsula and Gulf of Florida, or New Bahama Channel, with the Bahama Islands", "University of Georgia Libraries, Hargrett Rare Books and Manuscript Library: An exact map of North and South Carolina & Georgia, with East and West Florida", "De Soto's First Headquarters in Florida", "Historical Map Archive: 1933 Map of Florida by A. Finley, Philadelphia", "Seminole Tribe searches for remains of ancestors on Egmont Key", "They can't turn back waves, but USF and Seminoles are preserving Egmont Key in digital form", "National Wildlife Refuges Along the Trail of Tears", "Corps, Port Consider Channel Widening Options", "Dredging and Dredged: Material Management", "Port Tampa Bay has to dredge with care in nesting season", "Port of Tampa will fuel region with new $56 million petroleum terminal", "Spectacular Sunshine Skyway replaced ferryboats in 1954", George Gandy Sr. Made $1,932,000 Span Possible, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tampa_Bay&oldid=1145348488, Bodies of water of Hillsborough County, Florida, Bodies of water of Manatee County, Florida, Bodies of water of Pinellas County, Florida, Articles using infobox body of water without alt, Articles using infobox body of water without image bathymetry, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2022, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, This page was last edited on 18 March 2023, at 17:42. Can you fish from the beach at night? It supports many Floridian environments such as swamps and oak hammocks and many endangered species. Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System, Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County, FDEP - Southwest Regional Operations Center, FDEP Southwest Regional Operations Center, FDEP, Water Quality Standards and Special Projects (Florida), LAKEWATCH Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring, Pasco County Stormwater Management Division, Southwest Florida Water Management District, Stream Waterwatch Water Quality Data, Volunteer. Tampa's first water plant went into operation on April 20, 1899, operated by the private Tampa Waterworks Company. Maintaining this flow of freshwater ensures . Alternatively, use the Waterbody Search page to view all waterbodies in a sortable and filterable list. Make your next trophy catch in a Hillsborough County Conservation Park or Nature Preserve. (1992) The Hillsborough River Greenways Taskforce is established. The rivers temperature can vary from temperate in the shallows to near-freezing in open water. 1990. Canoe in the Hillsborough River. Lake Tarpo is a 2,534 acre freshwater lake that was dammed in 1968. Crystal Springs, south of Zephyrhills, is a major source of fresh, clean water for the Hillsborough River. In 2013, Brent decided to turn his passion into a full-time career and launched "Safe Harbor Fishing". However, live bait, cut bait, spoons, artificial lures, and jigs work well, too. During construction of the Tampa Bypass Canal the aquifer is accidentally breached. Because of these many flows into the bay, its large watershed covers portions of five Florida counties[8] and approximately 2,200 square miles (5,700km2). In 2007, a minimum flow for the river . We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Every species in saltwater will happily devour a live shrimp. By Mary Kelley Hoppe. Hillsborough River State Park includes 2,990 acres (12km2) along the Hillsborough River in northeastern Hillsborough County. The USF Water Institute is committed to ensuring that our websites conform with Accessibility Support guidelines for people who need to use assistive technologies. The Corps of Engineers currently maintains more than 80 miles of deep-water channels in Tampa Bay up to a depth of 47 feet. In March of 2015 the report A Hydrobiological Assessment of the Phased Implementation of Minimum Flows for the Lower Hillsborough River was released by SWFWMD. People of the Safety Harbor culture lived almost entirely from mullet, shellfish, sea turtles, manatees, crabs, and other bounties harvested from the sea. When local students reach sixth grade in Hillsborough County, they take a visit to the river for one to three days to learn about the ecosystem, watershed, and native Florida animals at a place called 'Nature's Classroom'. Make Short Casts. Downtown sits at the spot where the Hillsborough River meets Tampa Bay. There are two second-magnitude springs that contribute flow to the Hillsborough River Crystal Springs and Sulphur Springs. An exotic species of South American Armored Catfish has established itself in the Hillsborough River. These areas are critical habitats for many marine fish that use the estuarine area for a portion of their lifecycle. Information on possibly rescheduling the meetings will be announced soon. Where can you find big catfish in Florida? (1898) On December 13, 1898 the dam is dynamited by cattle barons angry at the loss of grazing land. Majestic bald cypress, longleaf pine, and sand live oak were hundreds of years old (and in the case of cypress, thousands of years old). Albert Whitted Airport on the St. Petersburg waterfront and Peter O. Knight Airport on Davis Island near downtown Tampa were both established in the 1930s. Fort Brooke,[36] Fort Dade, and the American military's miscellaneous Egmont Key facilities [37][38] were the primary sites associated with the removal of the Seminole in the Floridian leg of the Trail of Tears.[39][40]. How do you catch big brown trout at night? What kind of trees were in the Hillsborough River? Do you have old photos or documents, or an interesting water-related story to tell? They are freshwater systems with an estuarine area where the fresh water meets saltwater. History. It includes a constructed canal and several concrete flood-control structures. However, diseases they introduced decimated the native population over the ensuing decades,[29] leading to the near-total collapse of every established culture across peninsular Florida. It is one of the only rivers in Florida with rapids. [22] Communities throughout the Bay, including St. Petersburg and Tampa are adapting infrastructure and buildings to face changes in sea level. Important environmental features in the Hillsborough River corridor are wildlife habitats, especially those provided by natural shorelines. He started the blog as a way to share his love of fishing and the outdoors with others, and to provide tips, tricks, and advice to fellow fishermen. Who needs a recreational hunting or fishing license or permit? Functional cookies help to perform certain functionalities like sharing the content of the website on social media platforms, collect feedbacks, and other third-party features. (189899) TECO buys the Consumers Electric Light and Street Railway Company and builds a new electric generating dam downstream of the current site north of Sulphur Springs. 3 oz. An estuary is a partially enclosed body of water where fresh water from rivers and streams flows into the ocean, mixing with the salty seawater. More bridges criss-crossed Tampa Bay over the ensuing decades, making travel between the surrounding communities much faster and furthering the economic development of the Tampa Bay area. The park's purpose is to preserve the "real Florida". Lake Tarpon is rated as one of the top ten bass lakes in Florida by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. Paleo-Indian sites have been found near rivers and lakes in northern Florida, leading to speculation that these first Floridians also lived on Tampa Bay when it was still a freshwater lake. Parks with rentals are designated in the list below. (1897) At a cost of $150,000 an electrical dam is built on the river by Consumers Electric Light and Street Railway Company. Learn about the habitat restoration assessment, design, and techniques that have been successfully utilized over the past four decades to restore coastal ecosystems in Tampa Bay. Florida residents age 65 or older only need a Florida Driver License or Identification Card to prove residency and age. [15][18][1] Wastewater pollution from old phosphate plants near the shoreline has been a particular problem. However, there were many other coastal villages organized into various small chiefdoms all around the bay.[28]. The riverine swamp forest as it exists today has a much different ecology than the ecosystem that had existed along the Hillsborough for the previous ten to 15,000 years. Cassie and Nikki Blanco, along with their son were delighted to find the baby sharks just. . Fort Brooke begat Tampa on the northeast shore, Fort Harrison (a minor military outpost on Florida's west coast) begat Clearwater, the trading post of "Braden's Town" developed into Bradenton on the south, and St. Petersburg grew quickly after its founding in the late 19th century, on the western bay shore opposite Tampa. And yes, there are alligators in the Hillsborough River. But the middle river is far more than just the source for some of Tampa's drinking water, it is a wonderfully diverse river ecosystem within the larger urban area surrounding it. (1863) Federal troops march upriver to a location near the present day site of Lowry Park Zoo. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. However, occasional red tide and other algae blooms have caused concern about the ongoing health of the estuary. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Other. transportation and widens the growth of Tampa to both sides of the river. Hillsborough River Near Tampa is located in Hillsborough County in Florida. We are committed to providing accessible content to all users. (1933) In a torrential 24-hour rain, floods wash away the Tampa Electric dam. Now, freshwater flows of 672,000 gallons per day flow from the spring to the Hillsborough River. , Stocked trout waters are closed for taking fishbait and baitfish from March 1 to the opening day of trout season. Closed Season: Atlantic (excluding Monroe) closed Dec. You can catch mahi mahi in Tampa Bay by going offshore and using methods such as drift fishing, deep sea fishing, spinning, trolling, or light tackling. An estuary is a partially enclosed body of water where fresh water from rivers and streams flows into the ocean, mixing with the salty seawater. The Hillsborough River is a river located in the state of Florida in the United States. Is Hillsborough Bay saltwater? Size Limits: Not less than 28 or more than 32 Atlantic excluding Monroe. Lake Tarpon is known as the best trophy bass fishing location in the Tampa Bay area. (1910) Hillsborough Bay is channelized to the mouth of the Hillsborough River with the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899. This is an important step in efforts to maintain a healthy river for residents and visitors alike. The Hillsborough River is the central natural feature of the park. The Hillsborough River empties into Tampa Bay, which is the largest open-water estuary in Florida. Duck Pond Watershed He has since expanded the blog to include gear reviews, fishing reports, and even recipes for cooking up your catch. (1842) The Armed Occupation Act promises one hundred sixty acres of land to any man who can bear arms, build a house and culti- vate five acres for five years. Florida residents age 65 or older do not need a recreational hunting, freshwater fishing or saltwater fishing license or a *Florida waterfowl, migratory bird, deer, turkey, snook, spiny lobster, archery season, crossbow season, muzzleloading season permit or management area permit by possessing proof of age and . The islands and channels at the mouth of the river create an oasis for a wide variety of wildlife right in the heart of Floridas third-largest city. He names the pine forest of the area "El Pinal de la Cruz de Santa Teresa" or "The Pines of the Cross of Saint Teresa". "And these freshwater flows are within . DeSantis tours site, stresses safety", "26 feet of water: What the worst-case hurricane scenario looks like for Tampa Bay", "Climate change is here. The name Spirito Santo seems to have disappeared from maps of the region in favor of "Tampa Bay" (sometimes divided into Tampa and Hillsboro Bays) soon after the US established Fort Brooke at the mouth of the Hillsborough River in 1824. It includes 4 nature trails extending for over 7 miles (11km), making it perfect for hikers. The difficulty of traveling between Tampa and St. Petersburg in the early 20th century inspired the world's first scheduled air service, the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line, which operated during the tourist season of 1914.[51][52]. We are continually improving the user experience for everyone, and applying the relevant accessibility standards. Anglers have logged in Fishbrain over 33,007 catches for Largemouth bass, 12,142 catches for Common snook, 7,397 catches for Red drum and many more species in the Apollo Beach area. The first on January 8, 1897,shortly after construction was completed. Get a Head Lamp with White and Red Light. With the establishment of the minimum flow of the upper and middle river by the Southwest Florida Water Management District in 2007 and its supporting Recovery Strategy, the City of Tampa and the District in partnership are implementing measures and projects to achieve the required flow in the lower river, while preserving the pristine nature of the middle and upper rivers. As late as the early 20th century, visitors still reported huge schools of mullet swimming across the bay in such numbers that they "impeded the passage of boats". Do NOT follow this link or you will be banned from the site! The cookies is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Necessary". (1861) During the American Civil War, Tampa Bay is blockaded by federal troops to prevent goods from leaving Tampa or from coming into Tampa. The American government begins efforts to remove the Seminole from Tampa Bay and relocate them to a reservation west of the Mississippi. Are there alligators in the Hillsborough River? November 2017 Per Chapter 86335, Laws of Florida, the Hillsborough River Interlocal Planning Board and Technical Advisory Council monitors development and other activities associated with the river to maintain the health and integrity of the river for the benefit and enjoyment of the residents of Hillsborough County. The Southwest Florida Water Management District, the agency required by Florida law to protect and manage the waters in the state, authorizes the permits. As we are going through the process to meet todays industry standards and guidelines if there are documents or services that you are having an issue accessing or if you feel there is something we can improve upon to make services better available to you, please contact Lionel Fuentes or Sharon Synder at (813) 272-5940, 2045 Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP), Comprehensive Plan Transportation Elements, Tampa Comprehensive Plan Mobility Element, Temple Terrace Comprehensive Plan Mobility Element, Plant City Comprehensive Plan Mobility Element, Unincorportated Hillsborough County : Transportation Element, Public Participation & Measures of Effectiveness Report, Bicycle Pedestrian Advisory Committee (BPAC), Intelligent Transportation Systems Committee (ITS), Sun Coast Transportation Planning Alliance, Transportation Disadvantaged Coordinating Board (TDCB), Captioning & Records for Televised Meetings, Transportation Planning Organization Board (TPO), Suncoast Transportation Planning Alliance, Hillsborough River Technical Advisory Committee, Hillsborough River Interlocal Planning Board. Tampa staff, who operate the minimum flow regime, recently confirmed their commitment to ensuring that, at a minimum, this amount of freshwater equivalent flow will be maintained. [17], However, industrial and agricultural runoff along with runoff from developed areas pose a continuing threat to marine ecosystems in the bay, particularly by clouding the water with sediments and algae blooms, and seagrass coverage declined slightly in the late 2010s. [14][15], Beginning in the early 1980s after federal and state legislation to improve water quality, authorities installed improved water treatment plants and tightened regulation of industrial discharge, leading to slow but steady improvement in water quality and general ecological health. All meetings through Tuesday, Sept 12th have been canceled. , Best Answer From Peter in Australia: A hook will rust away in a fish, but it may take a while, especially if the hook is plated or made of thick metal. The communities surrounding Tampa Bay grew tremendously during the 20th century. 9; 14; . Live shrimp are the most versatile and widely available live bait for anglers fishing in Tampa Bay and throughout the southeast part of the United States. Mapbox, OpenStreetMap. This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Presented By: At other times, the entire bay was identified as The Bay of Tocobaga. History proves it was", "Tampa Bay environmental atlas", U.S. An edition of: WaterAtlas.org This waterbody is located within: 0 (good) - 24.86 (good) Jan-Mar 2023. strategically advantageous position. Over the years, increasingly more water was withdrawn annually from this reservoir. What kind of catfish are in Hillsborough River? (1935) Hillsborough River State Park is opened. Maintaining this flow of freshwater ensures a balanced habitat and estuary environment that is an important habitat transition and nursery for many fish and other wildlife species. "Based on the District's 5-year assessment and also the supplementary analysis report that I did, it's pretty clear that additional freshwater flows would benefit the ecology of the lower Hillsborough River," Flannery said. (1842) The Armed Occupation Act promises one hundred 60 acres (240,000m2) of land to any man who can bear arms, build a house and cultivate 5 acres (20,000m2) for five years. There they discover a blockade-running steamer and sloop loaded with cotton. It is listed in the Bassmaster's 100 best bass lakes of 2013. Plant's railroad line reached the area in 1884 and ran across the Interbay Peninsula to Old Tampa Bay, where he built the town and shipping facility of Port Tampa at its terminus. Check out the best fishing spots in Apollo Beach, Florida. Kever Raulerson. For the next 100 years, many new communities were founded around the bay. How big does a catfish have to be to keep in Florida? Are there bass in the Hillsborough River? Report it here. Citizens began to take notice and worked to urge the City and State to establish a minimum amount of freshwater flow to keep the lower river a healthy estuary. The Hillsborough River has its headwaters begins in the Green Swamp and ultimately flows into Tampa Bay. [25] This culture, which relied almost exclusively on the bay for food and other resources, was in turn replaced by the similar Safety Harbor culture by approximately 800 AD. The middle river has been Tampa's official source of water since 1944. [24], The earliest evidence of human habitation directly on the shores of Tampa Bay comes from the Manasota culture, a variant of the Weeden Island culture, who lived in the area beginning around 5,0006,000 years ago, after sea levels had risen to near modern levels and the bay was connected to the Gulf of Mexico. Findings of the 5-year study to be used by SWFWMD as sole basis for modification of minimum flow. By the late 19th century, however, the shallow nature of Tampa Bay made it impossible for large modern vessels with deeper drafts to reach the city of Tampa's downtown wharves on Hillsboro Bay. Estuary and natural harbor in Florida, off the Gulf of Mexico, This article is about the body of water. The USF Water Institute is committed to ensuring that our websites conform with Accessibility Support guidelines for people who need to use assistive technologies. Performance cookies are used to understand and analyze the key performance indexes of the website which helps in delivering a better user experience for the visitors. [13] Most damaging was the discharge of waste water and other pollutants into the bay, which drastically degraded water quality. Boats can be rented on site at the park's entry station. (1835) Seminoles burn the bridge at the Fort King Road's river crossing. The dam was located halfway between present-day 40th Street and 56th Street on the Hillsborough River (today's Temple Crest neighborhood.). Most ships would anchor well out from shore and transfer cargo and passengers to and from the city in smaller boats.[12]. When Europeans first reached Florida, the area around Tampa Bay and all of the watershed of the Hillsborough River was occupied by people of the Safety Harbor culture. Water Quality Index. Plant Museum, opens with a grand ball. Visualize Tampa Bay sea level rise and changes to coastal habitats and the resulting "blue carbon" benefits, View bathymetry, vegetation surveys, and habitat analysis for west-central Florida tidal creeks, Be informed about important water-related news with implications in Hillsborough County and elsewhere, Watch these videos to learn how to protect and enjoy Tampa Bay's waterways, This interactive map brings all water resource-related information together in one place, Use this interactive map to find data from continuously-reporting monitoring stations, Use this tool to graph water resource data and to download data for your own analysis, Visualize spatial and temporal changes in important water quality measures, View the geographic distribution and variability of rainfall amounts, access statistical rainfall summaries, or download rainfall data, Find a particular water resource on any of the Water Atlas websites using this tool, Search our library of water-related documents, maps, websites, videos and organizations, Find information about habitat-enhancement projects in the Tampa Bay watershed from 1970 to the present, Be informed about important water-related news with implications in the Tampa Bay watershed, Find opportunities for recreation, volunteering, and citizen participation, Find information to help homeowners, businesses, and contractors reduce stormwater pollution, Watch these videos to learn about Tampa Bay and how you can help protect it, View images of Tampa Bay's people, places, and natural resources, Join other volunteers to keep tabs on these amphibian water quality sentinels, Learn about ways you can help to restore Tampa Bay's watersheds. When the water is low, remnants of the dynamited dam can be seen. (2006) "The Hillsborough River Task Force", Temple Terrace, is created. To date over 18 species of fish and crustaceans have been documented within the newly restored spring run; in addition, manatees now . The United States took possession of Florida in 1821 and established Fort Brooke at the mouth of the Hillsborough River in 1824. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. In addition, Tampa Bay Water is permitted to withdraw water from the River during "high flow" times and under specific conditions. A license is required to attempt to take fish. Up to 1913 the Hillsborough River watershed is heavily logged for its valuable cypress, longleaf pine and oak. In 1924, the Gandy Bridge over Old Tampa Bay reduced the driving distance between Tampa and St. Petersburg to 19 miles (31km). (1999) "Friends of the River" is created by local residents for the purpose of challenging the SWFWMD minimum flow of 10cuft/s (0.28m3/s) of Sulphur Springs water alone for the river's only freshwater flow. This area has ecological and hydrologic importance because of its ability to store surface water and slow . Presented By: Do you need a fishing license in Florida? We welcome user submissions of documents, organizations, videos, etc. Suggest edits to improve what we show. County Center will be closed on Tuesday, Sept 12th. You can catch mahi mahi in Tampa Bay by going offshore and using methods such as drift fishing, deep sea fishing, spinning, trolling, or light tackling. How many fishing rods can I use in Florida? [5] By the early 18th century the people of the Safety Harbor culture, through disease and slavery, are nearly exterminated. Largemouth Bass with a zoom. The freshwater sources of the bay are distributed among over a hundred small tributaries, rather than a single river. Keeper gag grouper and mangrove snapper are biting on edge of the shipping channel and rock piles and structure around the Skyway Bridge. The current rules require that between 20 and 24 cubic feet per second (cfs) of freshwater flow must be maintained below the City of Tampas Dam depending upon the season. Later, Tampa International Airport and St. PeteClearwater International Airport were established on opposite sides of Old Tampa Bay, and MacDill Air Force Base opened on the southern tip of Tampa's Interbay Peninsula. Bag limit reduced to six channel catfish in any fish management area except as provided by rules of the Commission. (1836) Fort Foster is established at the Hillsborough River crossing to protect this Sept. 2009. Advertisement cookies are used to provide visitors with relevant ads and marketing campaigns. (1988) The annual Hillsborough River Cleanup begins. Hillsborough River State Park has some unwelcomed visitors. The islands and channels at the mouth of the river create an oasis for a wide variety of wildlife right in the heart of Floridas third-largest city. These islands have become important nesting sites for many seabirds, including threatened species such as oystercatchers, and have been designated as "sanctuary islands" that are off-limits to boaters. As a result of this lumbering activity, most of the trees within the Hillsborough River basin are now less than 100 years in age. An edition of: WaterAtlas.org In this way, the environment, residents quality of life, and the local economy will be maintained and improved. View Data by River Segment. Its waters are teeming with saltwater gamefish such as blue marlin, red snapper, flounder, tripletail, blackfin tuna, and many more. They are the Hillsborough, Withlacoochee, Ocklawaha and Peace rivers. No bag limit unless you are in a fish management area. (1899) Tampa's first water plant is built by the private Tampa Waterworks Company. The Tampa Bay Estuary Program keeps watch over the Bay's health. Hillsborough River State Park and Hillsborough River. Also listed on the Great Florida Birding Trail . Environmentally sustainable management strategies to help achieve improvements in water quality and lake ecosystems. Trees such as water ash and water locust were able to quickly grow in the sun-lit spaces created when bigger trees were removed. Its legal to fish in many places at night in Florida. With little, or no, fresh water in the lower river for much of the year, the estuary suffered and this part of river became more of a stagnant bay. Hillsborough Bay Watershed. You can do some freshwater fishing on the Hillsborough River, enjoy the local park, or even go canoeing if you feel like it. They tried three times. July 2022 By definition, a river is a freshwater body flowing into a large water body such as a saltwater sea, ocean, gulf or bay. [45][46], Facilities at Port Tampa Bay from Davis Islands, downtown Tampa at left, In the early 20th century, traveling overland between the growing communities around Tampa Bay was an arduous process. This report concluded that the establishment of the minimum flow was successful, and no additional changes to flow were recommended at that time. Heavy harvesting of fish and other sea life, constant dredging of shipping channels, and the clearing of mangroves for shoreline development were important factors. Anglers can test their skills at freshwater fishing in the river for bass, bream and catfish (a Florida freshwater fishing license is required). Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Due to worldwide glaciation, sea levels were much lower at the time, and Florida's peninsula extended almost 60 miles west of today's coastline. [18], Humans have lived in Florida for millennia, at least 14,000 years.
Non Toxic Headboard, Warner Demo Submission, Articles I