It is home to one-quarter of the worlds population spread over just 7 percent of the worlds landmass. Data and research help us understand these challenges and set priorities, share knowledge of what works, and measure progress. Kazakhstan used the inaugural games to showcase its national heritage and historic connection to the land just one week after Russian President Vladimir Putin insinuated that the former Soviet Republic should never have become an independent country. 0000042912 00000 n Social movements in southern Asia have been shaped by the social relations dominated by the elites of the south Asian societies who share some common features in South Asia is one of the poorest regions in the world: about one-third of the worlds poor live in this region with about 70 per cent living in rural areas and primarily Titles, abstracts, full-text screening, and extraction of data The mass migration of workers to Russia has slowed the economic development of Central Asian countries, incentivizing generation after generation to leave the country; this trend creates a negative feedback loop. Some may still follow through with their desires in secrecy, but live in a constant fear of being found out. India, once the exceptional case of liberal democracy in the region, has seen its rating drop in recent years, echoing a decrease in Freedom Houses assessment. Various countries of the South Asian region suffer from intense forms of exclusion in social terms and gaps at the infrastructural level. India is so large and diverse that it seems to be more a continent than a country. 0000003934 00000 n It rings true in south Asian countries where the society is rapidly changing with a complex set of State-society relationship. This is a hugely important shift. South Asia is densely populated and immensely diverse. The U.S. foreign-born population reached a record 44.8 million in 2018. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam insurgency in Sri Lanka has also decisively ended, though in far bloodier fashion. With 1.3 Billion People, India Is a Continent of Its Own. endstream endobj 80 0 obj <>stream 0000001688 00000 n (Clockwise starting from top left) Keystone/Getty Images, Gamma-Rapho/Getty Images, AFP/GettyImages, Eric Piper/Getty Images, How the World Works and Sometimes Doesnt, Return to Surrounding the Ocean: PRC Influence in the Indian Ocean, Africa Matters to the World Banks Global Role and Heres How, How Indonesia Used Chinese Industrial Investments to Turn Nickel into the New Gold, Malcolm H. Kerr Carnegie Middle East Center, not created a self-sustaining pro-state political order, enduring political power and serious limits on rights, partial democracies marked by factionalism,,, In the regions largest states, rather than reductions in violence opening space for revitalized democracy, there has been democratic decay or stagnation. Its home to Figure 4 draws on three datasets on political violence in Pakistan over time.4 While they examine somewhat different definitions of violence, and all of the crucial caveats about data quality outlined above for India hold for Pakistan as well, the basic trend of sharply decreasing fatalities in political violence over the last decade is consistent across them. 0(z5&owdB\ztmz}fCKm'4 /gpYu&1;O+aF(|i%X Immigrant Asians were slightly more likely than U.S.-born Asians to be homeowners in 2019 (60% vs. 56%). Both separatist and revolutionary insurgencies presented serious challenges in India; Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), also known as the Pakistani Taliban, rose with frightening speed to challenge a long-complacent Pakistani security establishment; Maoist insurgents mobilized against the Nepali government; the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE; Tamil Tigers) carved out a de facto state in northern Sri Lanka; and some predicted a rising violent Islamist tide in Bangladesh. In less than a decade, for example, India is projected to overtake China as the worlds most populous country. These gender inequalities continue into adulthood. There are several actions that could trigger this block including submitting a certain word or phrase, a SQL command or malformed data. Many studies have shown that South Asian immigrants in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom experience high rates of mental health disorders, sometimes higher than their peers. The countries of South Asia are incredibly diverse, so there are no simple takeaways from these trends. 0000007939 00000 n 0000003635 00000 n And Nepal has reduced its maternal mortality by more than 70 percent since 1990 through government and donor-supported investments in education, free child-delivery services, and improvements to road infrastructure, which allow mothers to more easily reach health clinics in the mountains and hills. This site uses cookies to optimize functionality and give you the best possible experience. Children of South Asian immigrants may face challenges associated with the pressure of straddling two different worlds. In this context, the paper analyses the contestations of social movements in the South Asia from a view point of contentious politics in the region. Governments have established greater control of previously contested territories, deployed new technologies of surveillance, and, in some cases, fused party rule with state coercive power. Most anti-state revolts across the subcontinent have been crushed, demobilized, or contained. MHA data can also be found in its annual reports ( and, for the Northeast, on the North East Divisions website ( In the first decade of the 2000s, both Nepal and Sri Lanka grappled with major insurgencies. Afghanistan granted women the right to vote in 1919, a year before the United States did, but the Talibans rise to power decades later significantly eroded this early progress: recent estimates indicate up to 80 percent of Afghan women face forced marriage. Second, the increasingly volatile international politics of the region may provide new incentives for governments to support armed groups across borders, tapping into preexisting conflicts and grievances. Coping with Shocks: Migration and the Road to Resilience, Inflation in South Asia, caused by elevated global food and energy prices and trade restrictions that worsened food insecurity in the region, is expected to rise to 9.2 percent this year, Office of the Chief Economist, South Asia. The Baloch revolt is likely to endure, as the security establishment has not created a self-sustaining pro-state political order, but it does not currently pose a severe threat to state power. To the north, Central Asia is far less populous but has its own challenges and opportunities. Across India, fans have built temples in honor of their most beloved stars. Fears of Pakistans collapse and rise of a revolutionary Islamist project drove international efforts to bolster state counterinsurgency capacity. First, important insurgencies still continue in the region, even if they are diminished in intensity, while ideologies, inequalities, and forms of resistance persist that can be mobilized against state power. As a result, millions of people from Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan looking for work traveled north to Russia, where wages were higher, jobs were plentiful, and the language was familiar. Crucially, however, this resurgence of state coercive power remains contested: while a new era of powerful states untroubled by internal competitors may have begun, there are reasons to be cautious. When it comes to dating, cultural expectations of South Asian families can conflict with western norms. Rapid urbanization has also led to high levels of air pollutionthe region is home to eighteen of the worlds twenty most polluted cities. All that can be credibly inferred is the overall trend, which decreases from the early 2000s to a lower steady state in the 2010s. Rather, it is exposing in a single word the reason why overcoming systemic violence based on gender is so difficult. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is such a political complexity, which remains an economic and geopolitical power of the region. The first decade of the twenty-first century saw areas of intense violence across the region. A map showing the number of movies released from India's states and territories, each of which has its own primary language. Afghanistan is not producing national accounts statistics since August 2021, so they are excluded from the table. Social movements in southern Asia have been shaped by the social relations dominated by the elites of the south Asian societies who share some common features in terms of culture and ideology. Three states have populations of over one hundred million people. The analysis presented will contribute to defining Americas Role in Asia. Although The main reason is the general scarcity of two critical resources essential to the development and implementation of such policies: capital and technology. 0000006899 00000 n Such non-state violence is often not waged against the state or political system, but instead is used as a bloody tool of social control and political maneuvering. qQa]6KJ4biYYtbubq>C)-,V~#h[ }06cc8 Ve[o~?ph (4)lUx\X It emerges amid growing water crises in many regions, which have come to constitute a global crisis. Beset with Sri Lankas economic crisis, Pakistans catastrophic floods, a global slowdown, and impacts of the war in Ukraine, South Asia faces an unprecedented combination of shocks on top of the lingering scars of the COVID-19 pandemic. From the viewpoint of economics, the high population growth in South Asia has slowed down economic growth, increased the foreign trade imblance, and worsened WebThis paper attempts to explain the social and political issues confronting South Asia today. (For context, Iowa has just over three million people.) Terrorist attacks hit Bangladesh, including assassinations and coordinated bombings linked to the Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami Bangladesh and other factions. The growing size and resources of internal security forces, consolidation of powerful regimes, and changed international environment may have made rebellion increasingly unsustainable, even when political grievances remain. Globally, research on social movements reveals relatively more insights from European and Latin American studies than that of the Global South, particularly from the south Asian countries. Labor mobility across and within countries enables economic development by allowing people to move to locations where they are more productive. 0000004679 00000 n Cloudflare Ray ID: 7c066082ba9642ea startxref The discussion has implications for developing treatment and Education has a significant How A chart showing the death rate of diarrheal diseases in Bangladesh going down as the percentage of people in Bangladesh using at least basic sanitation services goes up over the years. As commonly conceptualised, South Asia consists of the countries Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, with Afghanistan also often included.. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian subcontinent and defined Tamil militancy had been a fact of life in Sri Lanka since the 1970s, with the LTTE coming to dominate the insurgency. Like European countries, Indias states are drawn along ethnic and linguistic lines and have distinct cultures. Annika and Nehal from the That Desi Spark podcast formerly known as The Woke Desi say they began their This is another reason for mental health challenges like depression and anxiety, especially in women who may feel like they are putting the familys honour at risk by dating. Moreover, migration of mostly young men has led to rising divorce rates in Central Asian countries, where its not uncommon for one parent to be abroad for most of the year. Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, Editorial Board In Pakistan, substantial violence in the southern port city of Karachi was joined by a resurgent insurgency in the southwestern province of Balochistan and an extremely bloody rebellion led by the Pakistani Taliban. The breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991 created an economic crisis for Central Asias newly independent countries. -- Volume 27, Number 2, October 2012, Editorial Board As an admittedly crude proxy, however, overall conflict-related fatalities data leaves little doubt about broad trends. This follows growth of 7.8 percent in 2021, when most countries were rebounding from the pandemic slump. Finally, the paper anticipates a call for the collective colloquium of south Asian social movements. 0000042665 00000 n Its home to 1.3 billion people and has twenty-two official regional languages. The legal system grants substantial latitude to internal security forces, which limits checks on state power, and informal practices add to this autonomy. The views expressed in this article are those of the author alone and not the World Economic Forum. WebHowever, current and recent conflicts, inequality and social exclusion (due to age, gender, race and ethnicity) are threatening the value of this diversity and limiting freedom of expression. And in their densely populated slums, diseases can spread quickly. hTn0E|,[um)Bj,CM=!E*. WebSouth Asia as the most dangerous place on Earth because of the rivalry between the two nuclear powers India and Pakistan over a number of issues. India and the international community have put sustained pressure on Pakistan to reduce its support for militants and terrorists. Life expectancy in South Asia has risen dramatically over the past fifty years. State police forces have been built up in conflict areas, fueled in part by infusions of resources from the central government. Finally, domestic political instability can provide both opportunity and motivation for insurgency. 0000005744 00000 n Despite having a long historical background, critics suggest that the social movements are increasingly contested with identity politics and agrarian issues. Its constitution recognizes twenty-two languages, and its population is bigger than Africas. WebClimate change in South Asia is having significant impacts already which are expected to intensify as global temperatures rise due to climate change.The South Asia region consists of the eight countries Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, the Maldives and Sri Lanka.In the 2017 edition of Germanwatch's Climate Risk Index, Bangladesh and After devastating climate-change-fueled floods submerged one-third of the country this year, itsoutlook remains subject to significant uncertainty. Finally, instability in and political exclusion from regimes can foster rebellions, even after long periods of apparent stability. Anti-India armed groups are alleged to still operate on Pakistani soil, the Afghan Taliban has consistently used sanctuary along the Afghan border, and localized armed actors have worked with the state in counterinsurgency zones. 0000002159 00000 n Across all South Asian countries, patriarchal values and social norms tend to privilege men and boys access to opportunities and control over resources. These inequalities are manifested across the life cycle from conception, to birth, to childhood, adolescence through to adult life. Many studies have shown that South Asian immigrants in Canada, the United States and the There has been a dramatic transformation of Pakistans security environment since the height of the TTPs power. Kazakhstan's new Latin-based alphabet was disseminated in a newspaper in Almaty, Kazakhstan, on October 27, 2017. High-quality, standards-aligned classroom resources, lesson plans, teaching inspiration, and professional development opportunitiesall inspired by our mission that Global Civics is essential for twenty-first century citizenship. 0000001544 00000 n It has been reported in American media that the group has certain stigmas in relation to the LGBT communities. Here are some of the problems, and some things you personally can do While there is a heavy security force presence in the region, there has also been space for long-running ceasefires and negotiations that reduce violence even when they do not fully resolve contested political issues. For more details, review our .chakra .wef-12jlgmc{-webkit-transition:all 0.15s ease-out;transition:all 0.15s ease-out;cursor:pointer;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;outline:none;color:inherit;font-weight:700;}.chakra .wef-12jlgmc:hover,.chakra .wef-12jlgmc[data-hover]{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.chakra .wef-12jlgmc:focus,.chakra .wef-12jlgmc[data-focus]{box-shadow:0 0 0 3px rgba(168,203,251,0.5);}privacy policy. Now and Always,The Trusted Content Your Research Requires, Now and Always, The Trusted Content Your Research Requires, Built on the Johns Hopkins University Campus. More recently, Nepals lawmakers elected the countrys first woman presidentand the countrys second presidentBidhya Devi Bhandari, in 2015. The combined effects of COVID-19 and the record-high commodity prices due to the war in Ukraine took a heavier toll on Sri Lanka, exacerbating its debt woes and depleting foreign reserves. -- Volume 35, Number 1, March 2020, Editorial Board Yet there are reasons to be cautious in concluding that there has been an irreversible transformation. ~o hc}0`SctnEKjkf|;5SLg0]{7{rRr^"z1asq1vp[WDG5)2?,=Ma;M),n^\e}H V In this context, this essay explores whether and how there is contestation in the south Asian social movements. This success is usually chalked up to the central government striking a delicate balance of state autonomy and national unity. Since 2000, India has faced insurgencies in three geographic areas. The region is characterised by rapidly changing socioeconomic scenario, fast-increasing To learn more about cookies, click here. You can unsubscribe at any time using the link in our emails. Nowhere is this trend clearer than in language. -- Volume 33, Number S, 2018, Editorial Board Bangladesh provided support for insurgents in the past, but the Awami League government of Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has been fairly friendly to India. -- Volume 29, Number 2, July 2014, Editorial Board Existing violence data is not adequate to make fine-grained claims: it is likely that official records undercount civilian deaths, and both media and government reports can be highly unreliable in their distinctions between civilians and militants. Familiar landmarks created by the cold war have not 0000033910 00000 n Government policies have also gone a long way toward improving health in the region. -- Volume 24, Number 2, October 2009, Editorial Board -- Volume 34, Number 1, March 2019, Editorial Board While the Pakistani military is currently riding high politically, its track record over time has included miscalculation and counterproductive policies (for instance, repressing unarmed political movements while tolerating Islamist armed groups that later grew out of control). The Indian Army also has an important presence in J&K and the Northeast, contributing to a vast security footprint that can suppress insurgent violence. Bollywoodthe word is a spin on Hollywood and what many people outside India think of as synonymous with the Indian Film industryis just the Hindi cinema industry based primarily in Mumbai (formerly known as Bombay). -- Volume 33, Number 3, November 2018, Editorial Board Figure 3 shows the sanctioned strengths of Indias two largest central police forces, the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) and Border Security Force (BSF), from 1988 to 2018.3 The BSF has a major role in J&K, and the CRPF is heavily deployed across Indias areas of insurgency; both have expanded dramatically. Survey data from the report suggests that in late 2021 and early 2022, migration flows are associated with movement from areas hit hard by the pandemic to those that were not, thus helping equilibrate demand and supply of labor in the aftermath of the COVID-19 shock. 4 These three sources are the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (, the Pak Institute for Peace Studies series of Pakistan Security Reports (, and the SATP (see above). Tensions between Hindus and Muslims go back to before 1947, and religious violence has erupted occasionally since. And these challenges will likely become more severe as the regions population continues to balloon. Performance & security by Cloudflare. HMk1+tLDiB;;lbCKrVb5;zL3W=~,PA+h~={|7bem]}274(gHR/f5>0DT|[iJ)%EkllWF4o6#2mKTk5Wu#kN8I*bP"P3/@G (cP -- Volume 37, Number 1, March 2022, Editorial Board 2023 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. WebSouth Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions globally to a number of direct and indirect effects of climate change, including sea level rise, cyclonic activity, and changes in ambient temperature and precipitation patterns.
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